Ephesus Ancient CityIt is located within the borders of Selcuk district of Izmir. Ephesus, whose foundation dates back to 8,600 years ago, was established as a port city at a point where East meets West. Along with political and commercial developments, it has become one of the most important civilization, culture, science and art centers in the world. Ephesus, which was the capital of the Asian state of the Roman State, became one of the wealthiest cities of the period.
The fact that the Temple of Artemis, one of the 7 wonders of the world, was located in Ephesus caused more merchants to show interest in the city. Splendid temples all around the city, the largest library in the region and a philosophy school were established. As time passed, the alluviums brought by the rivers filled the port, and Efes started to lose its commercial power gradually. A big earthquake after that left its glorious days behind.
Ephesus, where the continuity of the settlement can be seen, even with interruptions from the Neolithic period to the present day, is one of the most important heritages of human history. The Roman city, which has been well preserved from the Hellenistic period to the Seljuk period, is the only mega city that has not been rebuilt in modern times.
Ephesus, one of the biggest ancient cities of the Mediterranean world, is a completely unique city. Celcus Library, Yamaç Evler, Ancient Theater, Kral Yolu and many archaeological works, each of which are magnificent architectural masterpieces, are the most attractive buildings in Ephesus. Ephesus (Ephesus), the first city in history to be made entirely of marble, is on the UNESCO World Heritage List.
Information about the ancient city of Ephesus 🏛
Ephesus Ancient CityAccording to legend, it was founded by warrior women known as Amazon. It is thought that Apasas, the capital of the Kingdom of Arzawa mentioned in the Hittite inscriptions. The story of the settlement, which flourished around Ayasuluk Hill, became one of the mega cities of the Roman Empire.
Ephesus Antique City is the best known face of Selcuk. However, the name of Ephesus is not only the name of this ancient city but also of the geography spread over 8 square kilometers. The dazzling structures we see in Ephesus Ancient City are from the Roman period. Throughout the history of Ephesus, it is displaced 4 times due to geographical reasons and wars.
The first settlement established on the Ayasuluk Hill, where the castle is located, in the center of Selçuk. I. Ephesus and it is known that Anatolian tribes and Hittites lived here. The region develops when the first colonists from the Greek island join Ephesus.
In 560 BC, Archaic Artemision (Temple of Artemis) was built and the city developed around it. In the second half of the 6th century BC, the region came under Persian rule. Lydia King Kroisos, who first used money in history, took over the region and the city people were driven from Ayasuluk to the plain around Artemision, one of the 7 wonders of the ancient world, and II. Ephesus Established.
Then Alexander the Great comes and takes the region. Lysimakhos, one of the successors of Alexander the Great, moved the new place between Panayır and Bülbül Mountains, located 2.5 km south west of Ephesus, which was towed around Artemision in 300 BC. Where the current Ephesus is III. EphesusInstalls.
The land suitable for agriculture, being a major trade route to the East, being a very important religious center both in Pagan religions and in the Christian era, makes it a big city in history. A flock of merchants and foreigners creates a multi-ethnic population.
It was under the control of the Roman Empire in 129 BC. Ephesus, which was one of the largest ports of the period, became the capital city of the Asia Minor province and became one of the mega cities of the empire and its population exceeds 100 thousand people. There was a great destruction in the city in the earthquake in 23 AD and the city was rebuilt after the earthquake.
Biblical writer Aziz Paul, considered the founder of Christianity, came to Ephesus in 53-55 AD and stayed for 3 years and gave his famous sermons. A severe earthquake occurs in 262 AD and Artemision suffers great damage. Destroyed by successive earthquakes, the city was rebuilt at the end of the 4th century. In the same period (391 AD), Christianity was the official religion.
is accepted, St. The settlement grows on Ayasuluk Hill around the Jean Church.
In the Byzantine Era, the present city of Ephesus was completely abandoned in the 10th century AD, because the harbor of the current Ephesus was filled with alluviums. I have to move to Ayasuluk Hill where Ephesus was founded and IV. Ephesus period begins. One of the youngest and favorite apostles of Jesus, St. The grave of Jean is here and on top of the majestic St. The Basilica of Jean was built.
With the weakening of the city's relationship with the sea, trade disappears and the city becomes a small town on Ayasuluk Hill, not connected with the sea. The Seljuks came to the region from the beginning of the 14th century. Aydınoğulları defeats Byzantium and takes the region and used the name of Ayasuluk, which was the principality center for a while.
It continued to be used as Ayasuluk in the Ottoman Period. Ittihat ve Terakki Party On November 6, 1914, as the general policy of the party, when the name of some accidents and villages changed, the name of Ayasuluğ was changed to Selçuk and connected to the Municipality of Şirince.
Selçuk, known as Akıncılar for a while after the War of Independence, was connected to Kuşadası on January 1, 1943. Finally, Selçuk was connected to İzmir on June 19, 1957 and the district was built.
Places to visit in ancient city of Ephesus
Ephesus, one of the most famous cities of the first era, was established near the bay where the Küçük Menderes river empties. Most of the ruins we see today are from the Roman period. It has the most refined and improved architecture and urban planning examples from different periods. All streets and streets cross each other at right angles.
Entrance to Ephesus Ancient City, one of the most valuable places in the list of places to visit, is entered through two doors. Celsus Library, Grand Theater, Terrace Houses are worth seeing. You have to spare at least 3 hours to visit the city.
1. Liman Caddesi
Harbor Street (Arkadiane) is the longest street of Ephesus stretching from the ancient theater to the port. Although it was built in the Hellenistic Period, it was named Arkadiana because it was repaired by Emperor Arkadianus. When you visit the magnificent 1 meter wide 350 meter long street, it feels like walking in a historical parade.
All sides of the street, which is completely covered with marble, are decorated with magnificent columns. This road, where kings are welcomed and religious ceremonies are held, reveals the magnificent life of the period. The sewage system extending to the port was discovered under the street, which is also known as the Arkadiana King road.
2. Church of Our Lady
Virgin Mary Church (The Church of Mary) is located to the north of Liman Street. It was built on the ruins of a Roman basilica that was abandoned in the 3rd century. It is 145 meters long. Hz. The first church built in the name of Mary. It has a very special meaning for Christians, one of the holy pilgrimage points.
One of the first seven churches of Christianity in the world. The Ecumenical Council, which has an important place in the history of Christianity, is also called the Church of the Consuls, since it was built in the Church of the Virgin in 431. With the decisions taken by the Consul gathered in the Church of the Virgin Mary, Mary was accepted as the “God-Born (Theotokos)” and the Catholic sect was born.
Efes Meyem Mother Church was used until the end of Aydınoğulları Principality Period. The acceptance of the attribute of the Virgin Mary giving birth to God is celebrated by Christians as the Feast of Theotokos. From time to time, a ceremony is held in the church in Ephesus on this holiday. Add the Byzantine Palace, located 70 meters east of the church, to your list of places to visit in Ephesus.
3. The Great Theater
Great TheaterThe most impressive and largest structure of the city in the north of the port street. The theater, which can accommodate 24 thousand spectators, began to be built in the period of Emperor Cladius and was completed in 117 AD. It is the largest theater in the ancient world, with a very ornate and three-storey stage structure and seating steps of 24 thousand.
The size of the theater gives clues about the city's population and cultural structure at that time. In addition to theater performances, it was also used as the arena of gladiators. St. Paul, who came to Ephesus in 503 AD, preached at the Grand Theater to find supporters for the new religion Christianity.
In the vintage festivities, various performances were held at the theater to honor the wine god Dionysus. The story of the theater's smiling and crying masks is known to come from here. The world's most famous orchestras hosted world stars such as Sting, Elton John, Joan Baez, Mikis Theodorakis, Ray Charles, Jose Carreras.
4. Marble Street
Marble StreetProvides transportation between the Great Theater and Celsus Library. Marble covered street,
During the imperial period, the city's main road and religion were part of the Regiment Road. Pedestrians are not forgotten on the street where cars are used. The high platform on the side of the road serves the same way as today's sidewalks.
It is admirable that they had a people-oriented approach to urbanism centuries ago. There is a marble with a woman's foot and a head on the street. This marble, which is thought to be the world's first advertisement board, depicts the Love House, which is located a little further.
Love House, which is the favorite place of seafarers coming to Ephesus, is located at the intersection of Kuretler Caddesi and Mermer Street. The house is said to have a secret passage to both the Celsus Library and the Skolastika Bath.
It is known that the men entered inside after a short ritual in front of the Aphrodite statue at the entrance. Who knows how many secret love this house has, whose walls are decorated with mosaics depicting the four seasons.
5. Celsus Library
Celsus LibraryThe most eye-catching structure that has managed to survive in the ruins of Ephesus. The library, built next to the Agora, was built in 115 years by the Asian Council Julius Aguila on behalf of his father Celsus. The magnificent front facade of the Celsus Library reveals the wealth of the city at that time. There are four female sculptures on the outer wall rising in all its glory.
Ephesus Celcus Library was the third largest library in the Classical Period after the Bergama libraries in Alexandria, Egypt and Anatolia. The library, which had 14,000 books at the time, played an important role in raising famous people such as the wise Heraclitus, dream psychiatrist Artemidoros, poet Callinos and physician Soranos. The library, which also contains a legal archive of the city, has served more than 150 years.
The library is also a 'heroon' or 'memorial tomb'. To the west of the library,
just below is the sarcophagus of Tiberius Julius Celsus Polemaeanus. The statue of Celsus, which is located here, is on display at the Istanbul Archeology Museum today. The sun that goes down behind the library in the afternoon offers a visual feast where you can capture creative photos.
6. Kuretler Caddesi
Kuretler CaddesiThe most functional street of the city, extending from the Heracles Gate to the Celsus Library. It stretches diagonally, unlike the grid road system that crosses each other vertically. The wide sewerage system under the floor covered with marble plates proves the civilization level that the city reached at that time.
Traianus Fountain, Hadrian's Temple and right behind it, one of the biggest baths in Ephesus Varius Bath Important buildings such as these are located on this street. The grave, which is called oktogon because of its octogonal structure on the street, belongs to the youngest sister of the famous Cleopatra, who was massacred in Ephesus in 41 BC.
7. Slope Houses
Slope HousesIt was where the elite classes of this magnificent city of Asia Minor lived. Its location today is comparatively solid with the famous cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. In addition to the richness of the city, it gives clues about the personal tastes and size of the wealth of the elite living here.
Their interior design reveals a vivid example of Roman taste. Yamaç Evler, whose walls are decorated with frescoes and floors with mosaics, has a separate entrance in itself. In order to see these unique houses, apart from the Ephesus entrance fee, an extra 36 TL is required.
8. Varius Bath
Varius Bathis a 3-storey building, the entrance of which is located on Kuretler Caddesi. Since the rich Roman woman living in Ephesus was built by Skolastika Skolastika Bath It is also known as. It was built in the 2nd century AD together with Latrina (toilet) and Love Houses, which has a capacity of one thousand people, with a statue of Skolastikia in a sitting form.
The bath, which has a central heating system, consists of 4 sections: calderium (hot water room), tepidarium (warm water room), frigidarium (cold water room) and apodyterium (dressing room). In the Roman period, baths were used not only for cleaning but also for socializing and having fun.
There are two features that make the bath important. One is that there is no entry fee from the poor. It is understood that they are struggling with class separation, perhaps the most important element of civilization, and that they provide everyone with the basic need such as cleaning. The other is to use advanced technology compared to the period.
9. Temple of Hadrian
Temple of HadrianIt was built to honor the traveler Emperor Hadrian of Rome. It is one of the rare buildings of the city, which has reached today from ancient times. Despite all the time it has been, the engravings on it are amazing. Inscribed bases in front of the temple are standing with the power of being carrying the sculptures of Roman emperors.
There are interesting reliefs on the door beam depicting the founding legend of Ephesus. The killing of the wild boar of Androklos, the founder of the city, the battle of Heracles with Theseus, the meeting of the Amazons and his gods, and the reliefs of Dionysos and his cheerful friends are exhibited in the Ephesus Museum today.
10. Domitian Temple
Domitian TempleIs located on the road from Odeon to Kuretler Caddesi entrance. Ephesians built this temple to show their gratitude to the opportunities provided by Emperor Domitian. Domitian is the first emperor to be built a temple in Ephesus. Since the cult statue in the temple was destroyed by the acceptance of Christianity, it does not have any part that survives except the head and arm sections.
11. City Hall
Town hall (Prytaneion) is a place where diplomatic relations related to the city administration are carried out and its halls are decorated with statues of gods and emperors. Artemis sculptures, one of the most valuable works of Ephesus Museum, were found in the excavations here. A fire, considered sacred, burned in the altar of the Goddess Hestia, located next to the building. Since this fire represented the independence and immortality of the city, it was ensured that it burned without extinguishing.
During that period, city council meetings, theaters and competitions were held in places called Odeon. Odeon in the Ancient City of Ephesus is a theater-shaped area of 1400 people. It is understood that it was designed as covered, since there are no gutters to drain rainwater on the stage. Today, it hosts classical music concerts and jaz festivals from time to time. Feel the healing and integrative effect of music by sitting in the same rows as the ancient civilizations of the ancient city.
Where is the Ancient City of Ephesus
Ephesus Antique City, one of the most valuable places in the list of places to visit in Izmir, is located on the borders of Selcuk district in the south of Izmir. The ancient city is 83 km from İzmir, 3.5 from Selçuk, 19 from Kuşadası, 552 from Istanbul and 628 km from Ankara. The closest airport to Ephesus is Izmir Adnan Menderes Airport. The nearest train station is in Selçuk. Check out how to get to Ephesus.
The project, which includes the construction of 600 meters long and 30 meters wide entrance channel to Pamucak coast to provide yachts entrance to Ephesus Ancient Port, is also being implemented. It is stated that the project, which will add fame to the Ephesus Ancient City, which is also on the UNESCO World Heritage List, will walk with great care without damaging the historical texture.
The yacht, which provides short-term parking for boats, will be 250 meters wide and 100 meters wide. For the first stage, 1620 piles will be driven into the natural protected area. The walls of the channel will be covered with local rectangular cut stone blocks in accordance with the historical texture.
How much is the Ephesus entrance fee
Ephesus entrance fee 60 TL. The ancient city can visit 2 times with Müzekart for one year and unlimited visits with Müzekart +. Open 365 days a year Visiting hours of Ancient City of EphesusIt was organized as 08.00-19.00 in April-October period and 08.00-17.00 in November-March period.
Every year, approximately 1.5 million people visited the excavations in the ancient city of Ephesus in Turkey's most beautiful ancient cities are located in more than 100 years continues. Ephesus Ancient City, which was included in the UNESCO World Heritage list in 2015, UNESCO With the process, it is thought that more visitors will enter the travel plan.
My advice for staying in Selcuk is Nea Efessos Boutique Hotel, which has a magnificent view overlooking Selcuk from the hill on Yeni Sirince road. boutique hotelier and creator of the first examples in Turkey Nisanyan Hotel is one of the most beautiful places you can stay in Sirince Village of Selçuk.
Located next to Ephesus, Kuşadası is one of the most famous holiday routes of the Aegean. Welcoming thousands of local and foreign tourists Kusadasioffers different holiday alternatives with its historical, natural and cultural riches. Hosting a magnificent meeting of history and nature, Kuşadası promises an unforgettable holiday experience with its turquoise sea, miles-long beaches and historical atmosphere accompanying the harbor climate.
The center of Kuşadası offers a lively and peaceful holiday with the entertainment venues that appeal to local and authentic tastes, gastronomic stops offering delicious Aegean dishes, historical places, cruise terraces and Dilek Peninsula National Park. With its location, it offers the opportunity to make daily trips to places such as Ephesus, Priene, Miletus and Virgin Mary.
Ephesus Ancient City, which is one of the places to visit around Izmir, is an impressive place for those who want to travel in time. Sirince Village, The House of the Virgin Mary, Kusadasi, Çamlık Train Museum The ancient city, which is also close to such places, can be planned by combining these points.