From Southeast Asian countries Thailandis one of the most important tourism destinations in the world with its world-famous traditional Thai massage, virgin tropical islands that have become a place for movies, more than 400 Buddhist temples that host millions of tourists every year, stunning cities that synthesize the east and the west.
The country, officially known as the Kingdom of Thailand, is located in the central part of the Hindi Peninsula. Surrounded by Myanmar in the west, Cambodia in the east, Laos in the north and Malaysia in the south, the Gulf of Thailand is located in the south, and the Andaman Sea in the west. The country, formerly known as Siam, has a very rich historical background.
Thailand is one of the most important tourism centers of Southeast Asia. The official name of the Kingdom of Thailand is the former name of the country, Siam. Located in the center of the Hindi Peninsula, the country's capital and Bangkok, also known as the bustling city of angels.
The oldest known human settlement in Thailand, which has a very rich historical background, extends 40 thousand years ago. The first known civilizations in Thailand are the Kingdom of Dvaravati, which reigned in the region in the 6th century, and the Kingdom of Sumatra originated Srivijaya in the 8th century.
In Thailand, which came under the control of the Khmer Empire based in Cambodia since the ninth century, the history of the Thai begins with the immigration from the South China to the region from the 10th century. With the predominant population in the Thai lands in the 12th century, the Thai formed the first administrative units with large and small city states with the beginning of the weakening of the Khmer Empire in the 13th century.
The first important Thai state known in history was founded in 1238. Buddhist Kingdom of Sukhothai is considered. Based in Chiang Mai Lanna Kingdom It is known as another Thai city state established during this period. Another Siam city state of the Sukhothai and Lanna kingdoms Ayutthaya Kingdom Ayutthaya became the new capital of Siam after its occupation by.
The city of Ayutthaya, which has turned into one of the most important trade centers in Asia with the effect of its geographical location in a short time, has been involved in the trade of many European countries, especially Portugal. Ayutthaya, one of the region's highly prosperous cities for 400 years, entered the dark period after it was invaded and burned down by invaders from Myanmar.
With the invasion of Ayutthaya, King Taksin moved the capital to Thonburi, a settlement in Bangkok today, and founded the Kingdom of Thonburi. Since Thonburi, on the west coast of the Chahao Phraya River, is vulnerable to attacks from Myanmar, it was moved to Rattanakosin on the east side of the river by the next king, I. Rama. Rattanakosin, which became the new capital of the kingdom, became an island with the channel dug to the east and the foundations of Bangkok were laid during this period.
Thailand, which is the only country that European countries cannot colonize in Southeast Asia, is known as King IV. He owes the balance policies followed by Rama. King IV, whose life is also the subject of movies. Rama has never been a European colony, unlike Thailand's neighbors Burma, Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam, taking advantage of the rivalry between France and Britain.
Known as Çulalongkorn, King V. Rama is known as the most respected ruler in Thai society, as he made great reforms to bring Thailand to western standards and undertook important reforms. Sculptures of semi-deified Çulalongkorn are located side by side with Buddha statues in some temples of Thailand.
Although he continued his father's balance policy, in the period of Çulalongkorn, Thailand lost its soil and withdrew to its current territory. Known as Prajadhipok, King VII. Rama took his place in history as the last king to absolutely rule Thailand. With the bloodless revolution that took place in 1932, Thailand switched from absolute monarchy to parliamentary monarchy. In 1939, the name of Siam was changed to Thailand.
Thailand's coup history
II. In the country, which was under the occupation of the Japanese Empire for a short period during World War II, VIII in 1946. The fact that King Ananda Mahidol, who used the title of Rama, was shot in his bed with a gun, accelerated the intervention of the military administration. Together with Marshal Plaek Phibunsongkhram, who became the prime minister in 1948, Thailand, the ally of the USA during the Cold War, hosted the days when military coups did not fall off the agenda.
Tourism, one of the country's most important sources of income after the disaster, suffered great damage in Thailand, one of the countries that experienced the most casualties during the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami. The last military intervention in Thailand was in 2006. The coup occurred when Prime Minister Taksin Shinavatra was abroad was caused by corruption charges imposed on the prime minister. The overturned prime minister still lives in exile.
In the Thai society, which started to camp deeply after the last coup, the Bangkok-based middle and bourgeoisie were organized within the PAD, also known as 'Yellow Shirts', and the Taxi supporters and other regime opponents in the UDD, also known as the Red Shirts.
After the violent events in the country, after the 2011 general elections, the overturned leader, Taksin Shinavatra's sister, Yingluck Shinavatra, became the 28th Prime Minister of Thailand, and also received the title of the country's first female prime minister. On May 22, 2014, with the military intervention of General Prayut Çan-oça, Shinavatra was removed from his post as prime minister.
The Betrayal of the King Law
The Kingdom of Thailand and members of the royal family are protected from any criticism by the Law of Betrayal to the King. Thailand is considered to be the country that strictly enforces this law in the world. According to the 2007 constitution, the king should be respected at the highest level and should never be betrayed.
According to article 112 of the penal code, 'those who slander, humiliate, insult or threaten the king, queen, heir or deputy will be punished with 3 to 15 years' imprisonment. what it can contain.